The five major livelihood issues of "clothing, food, shelter and use" are the first in food and clothing.
After more than 60 years of rapid and sustained development, China's manufacturing industry has become a universally recognized "world factory" in recent years. This is especially true in the textile industry. China's textile industry has developed into a "world factory" in the world, and has formed a large pattern of "clothing by the world."
From this, I recall to the depths of history, why is the textile industry taking the lead in the industrial revolution, so that the industrial countries in the later period followed the industrialization process in the textile industry, thus driving other industries to modernization?
Technical iteration of the cotton textile industry accelerates the demand for machine and mechanical power
In 1733, the mechanic Kay invented the "flying shuttle", which greatly improved the speed of the weaving, and the spinning was suddenly in short supply.
In 1765, the weaver Hagrievs invented the "Jenny Textile Machine", which first triggered a chain reaction in the cotton textile industry to invent the machine and carry out technological innovation.
In 1768, Kay invented the hydro-spinning machine. In 1779, Cloneton invented the mule with the advantages of the two spinning machines, and the back was modified into an automatic cotton spinning machine.
In 1785, Pastor Edmont Carterett invented the power loom and built the first power loom factory in 1791. Subsequently, other textile machines were invented to achieve mechanized production in the textile industry.
Soon, in many industrial sectors such as coal mining and metallurgy, machine production has also taken place. With the increasing production of machines, the original power, such as power, water and wind, is no longer sufficient.
In 1785, the improved steam engine made by Watt was put into use, which provided more convenient power and was quickly promoted, which greatly promoted the popularization and development of the machine. Human society has thus entered the "steam age."
The coincidence of the textile industry into the industrial age
The history of the cotton textile industry in the United Kingdom is not long-lasting. What is really valued in the UK is the wool textile industry, which is the textile industry rooted in wool.
Why the wool textile industry, which was far more important than the cotton textile industry, did not have an industrial revolution first. The woolen industry originated in the Middle Ages and is one of the most important and oldest industries in the British industry, so it is more protected and regulated by regulations than any other industry. Arthur Young wrote in 1767: "Wool has long been regarded as a sacred thing, the foundation of all our wealth, so that if we publish a opinion that does not contribute to its separate development, it is a little dangerous."
A long list of decrees and regulations is aimed at protecting it, supporting it, ensuring the superiority of its products and its high profits. Under the protection of mercantilism, the motivation for technical iteration of the wool textile industry is not so strong.
Cotton was first planted in India and later spread to the Mediterranean countries, and in the 14th century it was transmitted to Flanders. At the end of the 16th century, some workers in Flanders moved to the UK to pass the cotton textile industry to the UK. Before the 18th century, British cotton cloth was mainly imported from India and was considered a luxury item. Upstream people including the Queen like it. The British cotton textile industry was established in the 17th century by immigrants from the Netherlands (present-day Netherlands). The cotton textile industry is a new industrial sector, which is relatively tightly bound by guilds and government regulations, which makes the cotton textile industry relatively easy to develop.
The nature of the cotton textile industry
People need to dress, the cotton textile industry has achieved semi-industrialization under the original functions of power storage, hydraulic power and manpower. It has low investment and small scale. It requires only a small workshop and a few machines that cost less. Like the famous British utopian socialist representative Robert Owen, he only started the workshop with 200 pounds. Moreover, the textile industry is a light industry, which is most suitable for the transition from manual labor to industrial machine work, because the natural requirements of human dressing have matured and improved the spinning machine for hand spinning, and it is easy to form efficiency on the parts. The innovation, and later the demand for power, accelerated the improvement of the steam engine. This is also why the development of the textile industry is the easiest to establish in the post-industrialization countries. At the same time, the textile industry is a labor-intensive industry that can give priority to employment issues.
Demand determines supply
In the UK, the wool textile industry has the right to speak in the industry. The cotton textile industry was initially rejected by the wool textile industry and was also subject to competition from imported goods. The raw materials still need to be imported from the Americas, and the situation is difficult. For example, in 1700, in order to prevent competition for foreign goods, the Parliament issued a decree prohibiting the import of printed fabrics from India, Persia and China.
In order to survive, the cotton textile industry is eager to increase productivity and reduce costs, which means that technology must be innovated.
In the market, cotton fabrics are generally welcomed by people from all walks of life in the UK, and market demand continues to grow. In order to improve productivity and meet the needs of the market, many people are striving to make technological innovations in the cotton textile industry, and there is a wave of technological innovation in the cotton textile industry. In 1733, weaver and mechanic John Kay invented the shuttle, an important invention in the cotton textile industry. The use of the shuttle is labor-saving and speeds up, greatly improving work efficiency. However, this is only a reform of the parts of the hand tools, not the invention of the machine. In 1765, Hargreaves invented the textile machine, which can simultaneously spin eight yarns, the Jenny machine, which was modified to produce more yarn at the same time.
At that time, a place where the cotton textile industry took root was also very clever. It was Lancashire. The city has two advantages: it is close to Liverpool. Liverpool is an important port in the UK and cotton raw materials can be shipped here with as little freight as possible. Moreover, the development of the Americas at this time also provided important conveniences for it.
At this time, these places in China and India are no longer unique cotton fields. Cotton cultivation has developed very well in the Americas. Moreover, unlike the former, because China and India only output their superfluous things, all the harvests in the Americas are shipped to European ports, so that raw materials are not a problem.
Demonstration effect of the industrial revolution
The British industrial revolution started in the cotton textile industry, and industrial revolutions such as France, Italy and Germany also began in the textile industry.
From the 1920s to the end of the 1940s, it was the first stage of the French industrial revolution. During this period, various production departments, mainly the textile industry, began to use machines in large quantities. By 1848, the number of steam engines had increased from 65 in 1500 to 5,000. The light industry, especially the cotton textile industry, developed most rapidly. By the end of the 1940s, there were 566 cotton textile mills in France, with a total of 116,000 spinning machines and 3.5 million spindles, and the annual consumption of cotton was over 60 million kg.
The German industrial revolution began in the textile industry. By 1846, there were 313 yarn mills and 750,000 mechanical spindles in the customs unions. There were also 450,000 mechanical spindles in the wool textile industry in Prussia. Manual production still dominates the entire textile industry.
The reason why the industrial revolutionary countries and regions in the later period chose the textile industry was inextricably linked with the factors of the cotton textile industry in the British industrial revolution.
The cotton textile industry spans the two major production areas of agriculture and industry, and is an industry in which agricultural countries are inevitably undergoing structural transformation towards industrialized countries. In history, the hand-made textile industry first started mechanical weaving, and the power changed from manpower, accumulating power, natural force to mechanical force. Since farmers have experienced thousands of years of textile work, the transformation of farmers to factory workers is also the easiest to achieve.
The most productive and iterative and labor intensive representatives in the light industry. The textile industry is a light industry, and it is most suitable for the transition from manual labor to industrial machine work. Starting from the improvement of parts such as the shuttle, the technical iterations of components and power are deepened, and any practitioner can update the components on the basis of experience. The first thing the industrial revolution needs to solve is the gap in the employment of farmers who have lost their land. This industry can absorb labor, and at the same time, it can be employed without cumbersome training.
An industrial system that can be independently established and started. The raw materials, technology and labor required by the cotton textile industry can be accumulated in the country or in the region. In the late industrial revolutionary countries, industrial yarns can be gathered through labor policies without the need for external sources. Later, the state can also solve the problem of insufficient accumulation of power technology in the early stage of power technology by closely following the advanced countries in power technology.